Número 18, otoño 2009 PDF Imprimir Correo electrónico


Fundamentos y Debate

  • Giovanni Arrighi
    Globalización y macrosociología histórica

    Abstract: This article discusses the impact of what has been termed “globalization” on two branchs of learning of the Historical Macrosociology –Historical and Comparative Sociology and Political Economy of World-Systems–, moreover, bring to light limits of “globalization” as phenomenon in social history. Initially argues that globalization represents the constitution of a worldwide economic system in detriment of national states, which strengthen the viewpoint of Political Economy of World-Systems (PEWS) and debilitate the Historical and Comparative Sociology (HCS). Straight away, points out that, in the same way as on other occasions in the past, the characteristics of globalization justify its novelty: from long-term perspective is considered as a period of expansion of world economic relations. The argumentation close formulating that many of the limitations of both the HCS and the PEWS are due to centrality that they give to the construct, characteristically occidental, of nation-state, however, inversely to what propose this perspective, the current wave of globalization must much of its relevance to the activity of non-western countries, especially those from East Asia.

  • Héctor Guillén Romo
    Kindleberger y Galbraith: el eterno retorno de las crisis financieras

    Abstract: This paper present some of the main theories developed by Charles Kindleberger, in his classic Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises, and John Kenneth Galbraith, in his important book A Short History of Financial Euphoria. For Kindleberger, we focus on his economic model of fi nancial crises, which describes the transition from speculative euphoria to depression and the fundamental role played by the “lender of last resort” for overcoming the crisis. For Galbraith, this paper make a review of the common features that characterize the speculative episodes of the last three centuries: from the crisis of tulips in Holland in the early seventeenth century to the fi nancial disaster in October 1987 in the U.S. These two books, written by two great american heterodox economists, can provide a basis for understanding the fi rst great fi nancial crisis of the XXI century: the subprime loan crisis.

  • Julio Boltvinik
    Esbozo de una teoría de la pobreza y sobrevivencia del campesinado

    Abstract: Rural poverty, especially peasant poverty, is determined by the seasonality of agriculture and by the fact that in capitalism the prices incorporate (as costs) only wages paid for effective working days. When concur peasant producers with capitalist enterprises in the same markets, and they act as price takers, the prices of their products can only pay for the days actually worked. This means that the social cost of seasonality is absorbed by the farmers with a very high human cost and permanent poverty. The farmer must seek additional income outside the plot. If the rural economy not attend the same markets to compete with the capitalist economy, could move to consumers, via prices, the costs of family support throughout the year. This central thesis explains the agricultural subsidies in developed countries as a social recognition of their right to a minimum standard of living, without having to downgrade their status renting temporarily their workforce, which means that the social cost of seasonality is absorbs by throughout society. When this right is not recognized, the peasants are condemned to permanent poverty. The correct policy for third world countries, if they want to abate rural poverty, is not to fi ght agricultural subsidies in the first world countries, but subsidize to the farmers and protect them from foreign prices. Seasonality explains not only rural poverty, it also the survival of the peasantry as this paper show in its last section in the context of a polemic with Armando Bartra, who uphold the central role in this respect of the differential rent on land.

  • Andrew Gavin
    La revolución de las élites

    Abstract: Putting as a platform the greatest crisis of history currently in the making and the concept “surplus imperialism”, this essay draws upon neo-gramscian perspective to develop the supra-hegemony notion and to analyze the worldwide revolution of the elites in the 21st century.

Artículos y Miscelánea

  • Noé Aguilar Rivera
    Diversificación productiva de la industria azucarera
    ¿Reto tecnológico, económico o social?

    Abstract: The Mexican sugar industry has faced several periodic crises, with recurring supply/ domestic demand imbalances. The relation between both production and consumption have strong destabilizing effects, because the mexican sugar industry was developed to domestic market, the creation of enterprises from sugar cane byproducts has been widely discussed by the stakeholders, industry and researchers as an alternative strategy and a logical and economically advantageous development to enhance competitiveness and sustainability. However, despite its many advantages, sugar mills continue producing sugar and the Industrial production of by-products has not shown a constant, smooth development. This paper discusses some aspects, problems and perspectives that affect the sugar cane diversifi cation and the challenges of the agroindustry to ensure its viability.

  • Roque Carrasco Aquino/Hena Andrés Calderón
    ¿Existen perspectivas para la Sustentabilidad?

    Abstract: In recent years it has been spread by all countries in the modern world the need to apply in different areas of society sustainability or possibly lead to a sustainable dry. However, we have not been explained in an objective and real where we can drive the so called “sustainable development”. Who will take charge of its ultimate goal the sustainable development and referred to as the basis on which economic, social, political and ideological be sustained? In this regard so that concerned, talk of sustainability as an imported or imposed by international agencies to realize that the development model has no answer to social demands, implies then critically understand sustainability from its trajectory. Also responding Why broadcasting since the mid no longer meets the contradictions generated by the model output, consumption and distribution prevailing? However, the way of production over the logic of the market, it subsumes social needs; it is sustainable on the sidelines. The purpose of this study is to understand the trends of the current mixed economic model of the predatory nature and the vicissitudes of sustainability from the perspective of a critical and inclusive approach to Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • David Domínguez Pérez/Natalia Pérez Rul
    Los medicamentos similares: una nueva clase de medicamento o sólo una estrategia comercial

    Abstract: A big confusion exists since about what they are the similar medications, the Secretary of Health it doesn’t defi ne them legally as some medication type, but at commercial level they are identified as such, the denominated similar medications are generic medications that have not made the bioequivalence tests, the Pharmacies of Similar gave them this appointment, to be a commercial strategy of their competitors’ differentiation; the success of this commercial proposal is due to several points, but the most important is the accessibility in the prices, in comparison of the other types of medications that are in the market, what has made a model of non alone business in Mexico, but in Latin America.

  • Yasmín Ivette Jiménez/Maribel Aragón García
    Implantación de un sistema de gestión de la calidad en la MIPYMES como base para construir una competitividad duradera

    Abstract: Companies today have to compete with and overcome similar. But with the trade and subsequent economic globalization, competition has been extended to include almost everyone. This paper defines the business competitiveness as “the ability of a company to design, produce, and sell their products steadily over the competition, succeeded in raising the quality of life for owners and employees of the company”. The objective is to analyze the desirability of introducing a system of total quality management, based on the model of systemic competitiveness in MSMEs.